Leon Trotsky, representing the Bolsheviks, refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease-fire, following the policy of "No war, no peace".[39]. Former Imperial Russian and then Finnish Gen. Mannerheim planned an intervention to help the Whites in Russia capture Petrograd. Or, the Constraints and Conceits of Counterfactual History, Newsreels about Russian Civil War // Net-Film Newsreels and Documentary Films Archive, 1914-1918-online. These phony historians pick out certain facts and ignore others to give you an inaccurate view of what really happened. In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern, the southern and the northwestern. French forces landed in Odessa but, after having done almost no fighting, withdrew on 8 April 1919. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very next day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovskand the political ban became a catalyst for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime. Yekaterinodar was encircled on 1 August and fell on the 3rd. Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia, many with General Wrangel—some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. The two largest combatant groups fought over the control of Russia’s political future: the Red Army, known as the Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin’s leadership, and the White Army which had foreign influence. Estonia cleared its territory of the Red Army by January 1919. Hence, many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites, including the provision of troops and supplies. In Lenin and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks had strong leaders. "Reconsidering the Ukrainian Revolution 1917–1921: The Dialectics of National Liberation and Social Emancipation. [14] The forced conscription drive had mixed results, successfully creating a larger army than the Whites, but with members indifferent towards Marxist–Leninist ideology. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth[90] in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, International Responses to the Russian Civil War (Russian Empire), Social Conflict and Control, Protest and Repression (Russian Empire), Russian Revolution and Civil War archive at libcom.org/library, "Civil War of 1917 – 1922 at Encyclopedia of Russian History, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, British Campaign in Central Asia (1918–20), Ural Cossacks March from Fort Aleksandrovskoe to Persia, Red Army War Crimes during the Russian Civil War, White Army War Crimes during the Russian Civil War, Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia, Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689), Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Russian_Civil_War&oldid=996656826, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Europe, Articles with Ukrainian-language sources (uk), Wikipedia references cleanup from July 2020, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from July 2020, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, American troops in Vladivostok during the. 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